Railroads are among the safest modes of transportation for workers, riders, and the public. Strong federal standards for railroad track and operations, technological investments like positive train control, and communities’ infrastructure improvements have yielded significant gains. But most of these gains have plateaued and in some cases safety trends are moving in the wrong direction. A new strategy and framework is needed to address the most significant safety issues facing railroads. This report explores trends in railroad safety data and actionable recommendations for federal, state, local, and private sector actors to make a demonstrable improvement in railroad safety.